Language is device communication therefore language is very important in human life. Between 4 language ability, writing is language activity that needs much cognitive concentration. With have background which different is Indonesian language, into write foreign language, student often make mistake into express idea.
The purpose of research is writer want know knowledge and authority Indonesian language student influential to style express idea into English language and what the influence Indonesian language into write short arrangement English language in SMA 1 Ciawi. The reason why Indonesian language often influence process of writing arrangement English language student is because the different structure language, not be type tenses, not be system regular verb, irregular verb.
Language is very important in human life. Language is means of communication. Without a language, a person cannot communicate with others. English is a language in the world. People call it a international language. In our school, the English language has been given since the fourth grade of the elementary school up to university.
Most people in the world from the different countries and nations speak language. Also, many scientific studies such as education, science, religion, technology, commerce or politic are written in the language.
Language includes four skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing.
Writing is language activity that needs much cognitive concentration. When writing, a writer is challenged to use just linguistics code without helping of other codes, take for instance, gestures. A writer has to arrange some ideas and transform them into his thinking carefully in writing codes on papers.
In fact, writing is different from writing Indonesian. English as stated above is a foreign language for Indonesian student. English is a new language that they often have trouble when they learn it. One of the reason is the characteristics of English itself. For example, tenses, regular and irregular verb are not found in Indonesia. On contrary, Indonesia is a language which the students have got earlier basically, we believe that student of SMU have enough knowledge of it and have known to use it well and correctly. So it is possible that Indonesian, though it is a school language for most of them, can regard as the student’s mother tongue. They use Indonesian more frequently with they friends and teachers. Moreover, Indonesian is very close to them, to their speaking or writing habits. This is one thing that invites problems when the student writes the sentences composition in English.
Each language has its sounds and meaning. But in fact, we find that each language also has specific characteristic, which are not found in the other languages. Even though Indonesia language and English language have similarities there are not language that are exactly the same.
The writer would like to describe briefly the characteristic of both structural pattern of the Indonesian and English language to find out the similarities and differences which he predicts could be the causal factor of influence the composition.
In this description, the writer describes the classification of the sentences based on the number and the kind of clauses and sentences. There are four types of sentences.
- Simple sentence
- Compound sentence
- Complex sentence
- Compound complex sentence
There are many methods that can be used in educational research, such as historical method, descriptive method, experimental method etc. the writer uses the description method in order to meet the purpose of the research
In order to be able to collect the data needed, the writer will use some tests. :
- The writer will use writing test to predicated how far the students knowledge on writing short English composition
- The writes us error taxonomy to classifying the sentences that are predicated as influence cases. According to Dinne Larsen freemen and Michael H Long (1991: 59)
1.3. Techniques of Colleting Data
In collecting data, the writer directly administration. The students to write short English about 10-20 sentences on :
- Their daily activities
- Their activities on holidays
- Their activities when they shopping in the market.
Then these students composition are analyzed by classification the sentences that are predicated as of the influence case, besides, the writer has collected the information concerning the research by using the literary study
1.4. Population and Sample
In this research, the writer takes the second year students of SMAN I Ciawi as population. There are four classes and the numbers of the student are 40 students. The writer takes 5 students as sample of this research .
1.5. Research Procedures
In this study, the writer takes the procedures of research as follows :
- Study the curriculum especially the basic outline
- Construct the data gathering instrument
- Gather the data method
- Analysis the data
- Draw conclusion and suggestion
The Processing data which has been collected is carried out though the procedures as follows
- Firstly, the writer collected the paper of the students work. Than he put a sign on the paper. Later the writer examined all those composition one by one. If the writer found the pattern of the syntax that probably showes the influence of the Indonesia language, he wrote them on the cards of data processing.
- Finally, on each card the kinds of influences is recorded, such as the influences of the used simple sentence, complex sentence, compound sentence, complex compound sentence, and also of the types error in the interlingua and intralingua. In below is the kind of the students English composition or sentences and its classification of influence. The writer wrote the influence in the sentence and identified the error and then the writer gave the correct sentences in English.
The Analysis and Comments
1.1. Simple Sentence
To know further the case of the use of simple sentences, let the write show it as follows.
- Times holiday I’m going to Bandung (002)
- Before times holiday, I’m which my family goes to the beach Pangandaran (007)
- In Pangandaran, my family and I to climb about to saw the view of white sends (013)
- There, I’m help work my brother (017)
- The zoo there, I seed birds, snake, elephants (023)
1.2. Complex Sentence
The illustration of this case is as follows
- We going to beach Pangandaran because I’m get champion to I in sport badminton (013)
- I am not happy because there my uncle nothing (017)
1.3. Compound Sentence
There are the data of compound sentences in the student’s composition
- Pangandaran beach is very wide and become place good for holiday (007)
- In there, wave which to come is very big and to come rolls (013)
1.4. Compound Complex Sentence
For further features of the reason case here are the data about
1. There I am very happy find the place that I am like but far in my house (017)
In the student’s composition, the writer finds that the students have made errors in arranging the order of noun and adjective, verb and verb or placement of adverb
Conclusion and Suggestion
Based on the collected and some points of view of several linguistics dealing with influence in acquiring and learning a second language, the writer would like to propose again the hypothesis that has been previously mentioned the different structure of the Indonesian and English sentence could possibly be the cause of influence in the students English composition. In accordance with hypothesis, the writer has concluded the research as follows:
- The influence of the Indonesian language as the first language of the second year’s students of SMAN I Ciawi has been noticed to appear in their written language, their short English Composition.
- The degree of influence which becomes a focus of this research is in the level syntax. The data of influence are taken from the short English composition of students including the sentences patterns, the use of simple sentence, complex sentence, compound sentence and compound complex.
Based on research carried out, the writer would give my suggestion especially for those who are interested in the research of the same topic.
- The language teachers should know and understand language issues lika influence as this will have them facilities their students in Learning the second language. Therefore the teacher would be able to predict the problems that the students usually find in learning the language.
- The writer has handled the research of the influence in the level of syntax. As it is mentioned that influence might occur in the level of phonology, morphology. So, it is better if the others try to conduct the research on the other levels.
Brown H. Douglas. 1994. Teaching by Principles. San Francisco State. Prentice Hall Regents Englewood Cliffs.
Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. 1992. Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta. Perum Balai Pustaka.
Wishon, E. George and Julia M. Burks. 1980 Let’s Write English. New York.